In the News
Yellow Fever Outbreak
CDC Issues Level 2 Alert for Yellow Fever vaccination of travelers to Brazilian states of Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro (not urban areas of Rio de Janeiro City and Niteroi), Sao Paulo (except urban areas of Sao Paulo City and Campinas).
Outbreak of Seoul Virus Associated with Home-based Rat-breeding Facilities in Wisconsin and Illinois
CDC Health Advisory Network has reported an outbreak of Seoul virus first diagnosed in a home-based rat breeder in Wisconsin. Trace-in investigation demonstrated six additional human cases associated with two Illinois rat-breeding facilities that shipped rats to the Wisconsin breeder. Trace-out investigation showed that rats from affected facilities were shipped to residents of Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Utah. In humans, most Seoul virus infections are asymptomatic or mild. Severe disease can occur in the form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome similar to other hantaviruses like Sin Nombre virus. The virus is transmitted through exposure to aerosolized urine, droppings, or dust from nests/bedding of infected rats. Detection of Seoul virus RNA in blood and serology (IgM and IgG) are useful diagnostic tests. Virology laboratories in the affected states should be aware of the potential for this infection in their care populations.
FDA Decides Against Issuing Final Guidance on Over Laboratory Developed Tests LDT’s
Citing stakeholders’ requests for further discussion on appropriate oversight mechanisms and congressional interest in a potential legislative solution to oversight, the FDA has decided against enforcing broad discretionary oversight of LDTs. The agency has published a discussion paper outlining its proposal for phased-in, focused oversight of new and significantly modified high and moderate risk LDTs.
FDA Issues Black Box Warning for Direct Acting Hepatitis C Antivirals (DAAs) Over Concerns for Reactivation of Hepatitis B Virus During DAA Treatment
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a black box warning for the DAAs used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus. There have been reports in the literature and to the FDA of hepatitis B virus reactivation and several cases of fulminant hepatitis B in patients who are co-infected with hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus who begin anti-HCV DAA treatment. U.S. hepatitis C guidelines have been updated to include recommendations for hepatitis B virus testing prior initiation of DAA treatment and suppressive therapy for hepatitis B virus during DAA treatment for individuals who meet HBV treatment criteria.
Zika Virus Resource Center
CDC has updated its travel guidance for pregnant women and is advocating no travel to areas with risk of Zika (including documented or likely Zika virus transmission). Click here for the most recent guidance on Zika virus and pregnancy.
CDC and FDA have defined areas of active Zika virus transmission as those having two or more locally acquired cases of Zika virus infection within 45 days. Click here for the latest FDA information on ZIKV risk factors for the purpose of determining eligibility of living donors of human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products.
5,158 Zika virus cases in the US as of March 22, 2017 (4861 in travelers returning from affected areas, 222 from presumed local mosquito-borne transmission, 75 from other routes). Click here for updates on case counts in the U.S.A.
Click here for information on areas at risk of active transmission in the U.S. and travel notice posting dates for countries and territories with reported local mosquito transmission of Zika virus.
Click here for a world map of areas at risk of Zika.
WHO has created a new Zika country classification scheme, which assigns geographical areas of the world to 4 different categories based on Zika transmission characteristics. CDC is recommending testing based on this classification scheme.
MMWR Publication: Demographics and Clinical Characteristics of Children Aged 0-17 Years with Zika Virus Disease Acquired Postnatally – U.S., January 2015-July 2016
MMWR Publication: Preliminary Findings from an Investigation of Zika Virus Infection in a Patient with No Known Risk Factors – Utah 2016
Elsevier Zika Virus Resource Center
Influenza Resource Center
CDC Updates on Influenza Virus Activity in the U.S.
Pan American Health Organization's Influenza Situation in the Americas
World Health Organization's Global Surveillance
As the influenza season in South America is winding down, the World Health Organization is recommending that a new clade 6B influenza A H1N1 virus A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1) replace A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) pdm09-like virus